Reliability and validity of the Khmer version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (Kh-CD-RISC10) in Cambodian adolescents

Chanmettachampavieng Duong, Cameron P. Hurst

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Background: Resilience has been characterized as a defensive factor against the refinement of mental health problems. This study adapted the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (Kh-CD-RISC10) for use in Khmer adolescents and subsequently investigates its psychometric properties. 

Methods: Using stratified random sampling, this cross-sectional study sampled Cambodian adolescents from high schools selected randomly within three provinces (Phnom Penh, Battambang and Mondulkiri) - location (rural, urban) combinations. Parallel analysis was used to identify the number of component(s), and the structure of the single factor was subsequently explored using principal axis factoring. A confirmatory factor analysis was then performed to establish the fit of the Kh-CD-RISC10 to another sample. To assess convergent validity, the factor scores of the Khmer version of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were categorized into three levels, and then the general negative affectivity (GNA) and physiological hyperarousal (PH) scales (derived from the DASS 21) were compared among the three resilience groups. 

Results: Of the 798 participants who responded (responded rate = 82.26 %), 440 (41.23 %) were female and the age ranged from 14 to 24 years old (mean = 17.36, SD = 1.325). The internal consistency of the Khmer 10-item CD-RISC was also shown to be high in Cambodian adolescents (Cronbach's alpha = 0. 82). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the single factor model fit data adequately (χ2 = 100.103, df = 35, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.9484, RMSEA = 0.0384). We found that there were significant differences in both General Negative affectivity and Physiological Hyperarousal among the three resilience groups (FGNA = 12. 84, df = 2, p < 0.001; FPH = 13. 01, df = 2, p < 0.001). 

Conclusion: The results from the present study indicate that the Khmer version of CD-RISC shows good psychometric properties in Cambodian adolescents. Our result confirms that a single dimension underlay the 10 items on the CD-RISC scale of this population, and can be used to assess the resilience comparing to the level of PTSD symptoms in general Khmer adolescent.

Original languageEnglish
Article number297
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalBMC Research Notes
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jun 2016
Externally publishedYes


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