Central Australia is a human T-cell leukemia virus type 1c (HTLV-1c) endemic region and has the highest incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Australia. The factors associated with HTLV-1 seropositivity among Aboriginal Australian adults with CKD receiving hemodialysis (HD) were determined. A retrospective observational study of Aboriginal adults (≥ 18 years) who were receiving regular HD at the two main dialysis units in Alice Springs, December 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015. Demographic and clinical data before commencing HD were extracted from hospital records from the first presentation to Alice Springs Hospital (ASH) to HD commencement and associations were determined using logistic regression. Among 373 patients receiving HD, 133 (35.9%) were HTLV-1 infected. Identifiable factors associated with HTLV-1 status included increasing age, male gender, and diabetes before HD. The odds of diabetes mellitus were significantly higher among patients with HTLV-1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19, 6.39; p = 0.017). More than one-fifth of participants had an acute kidney injury, the risk of which was increased among those with a previous blood stream infection (aOR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.71, 5.34, p < 0.001). Men with a high HTLV-1 proviral load (≥500 copies per 105 peripheral blood leukocytes) had an increased risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) before HD (aOR: 5.15, 95% CI: 1.62, 16.40; p = 0.006). A strong association between HTLV-1 and diabetes, and an increased risk of UTI among men with a high HTLV-1 PVL, suggest that interactions between HTLV-1 infection and conventional risk factors may increase the risk for CKD in this population.