Scaling laws of marine predator search behaviour

D Sims, E Southall, N Humphries, Graeme Hays, Corey Bradshaw, J Pitchford, Alex James, M Ahmed, A Brierley, M HINDELL, D Morritt, M Musyl, D Righton, E Shepard, V Wearmouth, R Wilson, M Witt, J Metcalfe

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Many free-ranging predators have to make foraging decisions with little, if any, knowledge of present resource distribution and availability. The optimal search strategy they should use to maximize encounter rates with prey in heterogeneous natural environments remains a largely unresolved issue in ecology. L� walks are specialized random walks giving rise to fractal movement trajectories that may represent an optimal solution for searching complex landscapes. However, the adaptive significance of this putative strategy in response to natural prey distributions remains untested. Here we analyse over a million movement displacements recorded from animal-attached electronic tags to show that diverse marine predators-sharks, bony fishes, sea turtles and penguins-exhibit L�-walk-like behaviour close to a theoretical optimum. Prey density distributions also display L�-like fractal patterns, suggesting response movements by predators to prey distributions. Simulations show that predators have higher encounter rates when adopting L�-type foraging in natural-like prey fields compared with purely random landscapes. This is consistent with the hypothesis that observed search patterns are adapted to observed statistical patterns of the landscape. This may explain why L�-like behaviour seems to be widespread among diverse organisms, from microbes to humans, as a 'rule' that evolved in response to patchy resource distributions. �2008 Nature Publishing Group.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1098-1102
    Number of pages5
    JournalNature
    Volume451
    Issue number7182
    Publication statusPublished - 2008

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    Sims, D., Southall, E., Humphries, N., Hays, G., Bradshaw, C., Pitchford, J., ... Metcalfe, J. (2008). Scaling laws of marine predator search behaviour. Nature, 451(7182), 1098-1102.
    Sims, D ; Southall, E ; Humphries, N ; Hays, Graeme ; Bradshaw, Corey ; Pitchford, J ; James, Alex ; Ahmed, M ; Brierley, A ; HINDELL, M ; Morritt, D ; Musyl, M ; Righton, D ; Shepard, E ; Wearmouth, V ; Wilson, R ; Witt, M ; Metcalfe, J. / Scaling laws of marine predator search behaviour. In: Nature. 2008 ; Vol. 451, No. 7182. pp. 1098-1102.
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    abstract = "Many free-ranging predators have to make foraging decisions with little, if any, knowledge of present resource distribution and availability. The optimal search strategy they should use to maximize encounter rates with prey in heterogeneous natural environments remains a largely unresolved issue in ecology. L� walks are specialized random walks giving rise to fractal movement trajectories that may represent an optimal solution for searching complex landscapes. However, the adaptive significance of this putative strategy in response to natural prey distributions remains untested. Here we analyse over a million movement displacements recorded from animal-attached electronic tags to show that diverse marine predators-sharks, bony fishes, sea turtles and penguins-exhibit L�-walk-like behaviour close to a theoretical optimum. Prey density distributions also display L�-like fractal patterns, suggesting response movements by predators to prey distributions. Simulations show that predators have higher encounter rates when adopting L�-type foraging in natural-like prey fields compared with purely random landscapes. This is consistent with the hypothesis that observed search patterns are adapted to observed statistical patterns of the landscape. This may explain why L�-like behaviour seems to be widespread among diverse organisms, from microbes to humans, as a 'rule' that evolved in response to patchy resource distributions. �2008 Nature Publishing Group.",
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    author = "D Sims and E Southall and N Humphries and Graeme Hays and Corey Bradshaw and J Pitchford and Alex James and M Ahmed and A Brierley and M HINDELL and D Morritt and M Musyl and D Righton and E Shepard and V Wearmouth and R Wilson and M Witt and J Metcalfe",
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    Sims, D, Southall, E, Humphries, N, Hays, G, Bradshaw, C, Pitchford, J, James, A, Ahmed, M, Brierley, A, HINDELL, M, Morritt, D, Musyl, M, Righton, D, Shepard, E, Wearmouth, V, Wilson, R, Witt, M & Metcalfe, J 2008, 'Scaling laws of marine predator search behaviour', Nature, vol. 451, no. 7182, pp. 1098-1102.

    Scaling laws of marine predator search behaviour. / Sims, D; Southall, E; Humphries, N; Hays, Graeme; Bradshaw, Corey; Pitchford, J; James, Alex; Ahmed, M; Brierley, A; HINDELL, M; Morritt, D; Musyl, M; Righton, D; Shepard, E; Wearmouth, V; Wilson, R; Witt, M; Metcalfe, J.

    In: Nature, Vol. 451, No. 7182, 2008, p. 1098-1102.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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    AU - Sims, D

    AU - Southall, E

    AU - Humphries, N

    AU - Hays, Graeme

    AU - Bradshaw, Corey

    AU - Pitchford, J

    AU - James, Alex

    AU - Ahmed, M

    AU - Brierley, A

    AU - HINDELL, M

    AU - Morritt, D

    AU - Musyl, M

    AU - Righton, D

    AU - Shepard, E

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    AU - Wilson, R

    AU - Witt, M

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    N2 - Many free-ranging predators have to make foraging decisions with little, if any, knowledge of present resource distribution and availability. The optimal search strategy they should use to maximize encounter rates with prey in heterogeneous natural environments remains a largely unresolved issue in ecology. L� walks are specialized random walks giving rise to fractal movement trajectories that may represent an optimal solution for searching complex landscapes. However, the adaptive significance of this putative strategy in response to natural prey distributions remains untested. Here we analyse over a million movement displacements recorded from animal-attached electronic tags to show that diverse marine predators-sharks, bony fishes, sea turtles and penguins-exhibit L�-walk-like behaviour close to a theoretical optimum. Prey density distributions also display L�-like fractal patterns, suggesting response movements by predators to prey distributions. Simulations show that predators have higher encounter rates when adopting L�-type foraging in natural-like prey fields compared with purely random landscapes. This is consistent with the hypothesis that observed search patterns are adapted to observed statistical patterns of the landscape. This may explain why L�-like behaviour seems to be widespread among diverse organisms, from microbes to humans, as a 'rule' that evolved in response to patchy resource distributions. �2008 Nature Publishing Group.

    AB - Many free-ranging predators have to make foraging decisions with little, if any, knowledge of present resource distribution and availability. The optimal search strategy they should use to maximize encounter rates with prey in heterogeneous natural environments remains a largely unresolved issue in ecology. L� walks are specialized random walks giving rise to fractal movement trajectories that may represent an optimal solution for searching complex landscapes. However, the adaptive significance of this putative strategy in response to natural prey distributions remains untested. Here we analyse over a million movement displacements recorded from animal-attached electronic tags to show that diverse marine predators-sharks, bony fishes, sea turtles and penguins-exhibit L�-walk-like behaviour close to a theoretical optimum. Prey density distributions also display L�-like fractal patterns, suggesting response movements by predators to prey distributions. Simulations show that predators have higher encounter rates when adopting L�-type foraging in natural-like prey fields compared with purely random landscapes. This is consistent with the hypothesis that observed search patterns are adapted to observed statistical patterns of the landscape. This may explain why L�-like behaviour seems to be widespread among diverse organisms, from microbes to humans, as a 'rule' that evolved in response to patchy resource distributions. �2008 Nature Publishing Group.

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    Sims D, Southall E, Humphries N, Hays G, Bradshaw C, Pitchford J et al. Scaling laws of marine predator search behaviour. Nature. 2008;451(7182):1098-1102.