The purpose of this study was to explore facilitators and barriers of self-management from the viewpoint of Chinese people with schizophrenia and their caregivers. A qualitative study using the individual interview method was used. Twenty-one people with schizophrenia and 14 caregivers were interviewed. Three facilitators were identified: family and peer support, positive relationships with health professionals, and positive attitudes towards self-management. Four barriers were identified: lack of knowledge and skills, financial constraint, social stigma, and uncoordinated mental health services. The findings from this study should help nurses to recognize the factors that influence self-management and provide direction for nurses and other health professionals involved in initiating and implementing family-based self-management programmes for people with schizophrenia. The findings also call for the development of antistigma programmes, which are needed to help reduce prejudice and discrimination towards individuals with schizophrenia in China. The study also provides information for health policy makers in China to help them make potential changes in mental health services, which can better meet the needs of Chinese people with schizophrenia.