Objective This paper aimed to investigate whether distinct sleep quality subtypes predicted health-related quality of life in a nonclinical sample of children. Methods This paper utilized data from two waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a cohort study that follows a representative population of children in Australia. This paper examined data from Waves 4 and 5 of the LSAC (covering the period 2010–2012) and included 3974 children aged 10–11 years at Wave 4 (51.4% male). Multiple dimensions of sleep quality were assessed using a combination of child- and parent-reported measures. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed through the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Results Latent class analysis indicated six distinct sleep quality classes in children, namely good sleep, moderate sleep quality, mild sleep disturbances, short sleep, long sleep, and disordered sleep. In general, the disordered sleep and minor sleep disturbance classes had poorer HRQOL, which worsened over time. The long sleep and moderate sleep quality classes also showed some decreases in HRQOL over time. Conclusions This study demonstrates that there are distinct sleep quality subtypes in children that could have implications for HRQOL. These findings may inform future strategies to promote improved sleep and HRQOL in children.