Smoking and the deaths and suffering it causes are more common among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and M?ori than other Australians and New Zealanders. While, many tobacco control activities that are not specifically targeted at children will have a positive impact on child health, this review concentrates on recent tobacco control research on pregnant women and children. The important tasks are to reduce smoking by pregnant M?ori and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to reduce infant and child exposure to second-hand smoke and to reduce smoking initiation of children and adolescents. Health professionals who want to reduce the suffering caused by smoking among M?ori and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children can be guided by much new relevant research evidence and clear frameworks about how to approach tobacco control in these communities. � 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).