Sodium and its role in cardiovascular disease - The debate continues

Yee Wen Kong, Sara Baqar, George Jerums, Elif I. Ekinci

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    Abstract

    Guidelines have recommended significant reductions in dietary sodium intake to improve cardiovascular health. However, these dietary sodium intake recommendations have been questioned as emerging evidence has shown that there is a higher risk of cardiovascular disease with a low sodium diet, including in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This may be related to the other pleotropic effects of dietary sodium intake. Therefore, despite recent review of dietary sodium intake guidelines by multiple organizations, including the dietary guidelines for Americans, American Diabetes Association, and American Heart Association, concerns about the impact of the degree of sodium restriction on cardiovascular health continue to be raised. This literature review examines the effects of dietary sodium intake on factors contributing to cardiovascular health, including left ventricular hypertrophy, heart rate, albuminuria, rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, serum lipids, insulin sensitivity, sympathetic nervous system activation, endothelial function, and immune function. In the last part of this review, the association between dietary sodium intake and cardiovascular outcomes, especially in individuals with diabetes, is explored. Given the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in individuals with diabetes and the increasing incidence of diabetes worldwide, this review is important in summarizing the recent evidence regarding the effects of dietary sodium intake on cardiovascular health, especially in this population.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number164
    Pages (from-to)1-17
    Number of pages17
    JournalFrontiers in Endocrinology
    Volume7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 23 Dec 2016

    Fingerprint

    Dietary Sodium
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Sodium
    Health
    Chymosin
    Guidelines
    Sodium-Restricted Diet
    Nutrition Policy
    Albuminuria
    Sympathetic Nervous System
    Angiotensins
    Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
    Aldosterone
    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Insulin Resistance
    Heart Rate
    Organizations
    Lipids
    Incidence
    Serum

    Cite this

    Kong, Yee Wen ; Baqar, Sara ; Jerums, George ; Ekinci, Elif I. / Sodium and its role in cardiovascular disease - The debate continues. In: Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2016 ; Vol. 7. pp. 1-17.
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    Sodium and its role in cardiovascular disease - The debate continues. / Kong, Yee Wen; Baqar, Sara; Jerums, George; Ekinci, Elif I.

    In: Frontiers in Endocrinology, Vol. 7, 164, 23.12.2016, p. 1-17.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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