Survival of pneumococcus on hands and fomites

Heidi Smith-Vaughan, F Crichton, Jemima Beissbarth, Peter Morris, Amanda Leach

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Background. Pneumococcal hand contamination in Indigenous children in remote communities is common (37%). It is not clear whether this requires frequent inoculation, or if pneumococci will survive on hands for long periods of time. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the survival time of pneumococci on hands and fomites. Findings. The hands of 3 adult volunteers, a glass plate and plastic ball were inoculated with pneumococci suspended in two different media. Survival at specified time intervals was determined by swabbing and re-culture onto horse blood agar. Pneumococci inoculated onto hands of volunteers were recovered after 3 minutes at 4% to 79% of the initial inoculum. Recovery from one individual was consistently higher. By one hour, only a small number of pneumococci were recovered and this was dependent on the suspension medium used. At subsequent intervals and up to 3 hours after inoculation, < 10 colony forming units were recovered from hands. On a glass plate, pneumococcal numbers dropped an average 70% in the two hours after inoculation. Subsequently, < 100 colony forming units were recovered up to 15 hours after inoculation. Conclusion. The poor survival of pneumococci on hands suggests that the high prevalence of pneumococcal hand contamination in some populations is related to frequent inoculation rather than long survival. It is plausible that hand contamination plays a (brief) role in transmission directly, and indirectly through contamination via fomites. Regular hand washing and timely cleansing or removal of contaminated fomites may aid control of pneumococcal transmission via these routes. � 2008 Smith-Vaughan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)112-115
    Number of pages4
    JournalBMC Research Notes
    Volume1
    Publication statusPublished - 2008

    Fingerprint

    Fomites
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Contamination
    Hand
    Survival
    Glass
    Washing
    Agar
    Suspensions
    Blood
    Volunteers
    Stem Cells
    Plastics
    Recovery
    Hand Disinfection
    Horses

    Cite this

    Smith-Vaughan, H., Crichton, F., Beissbarth, J., Morris, P., & Leach, A. (2008). Survival of pneumococcus on hands and fomites. BMC Research Notes, 1, 112-115.
    Smith-Vaughan, Heidi ; Crichton, F ; Beissbarth, Jemima ; Morris, Peter ; Leach, Amanda. / Survival of pneumococcus on hands and fomites. In: BMC Research Notes. 2008 ; Vol. 1. pp. 112-115.
    @article{535008c1476a4002930747af8b3042f5,
    title = "Survival of pneumococcus on hands and fomites",
    abstract = "Background. Pneumococcal hand contamination in Indigenous children in remote communities is common (37{\%}). It is not clear whether this requires frequent inoculation, or if pneumococci will survive on hands for long periods of time. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the survival time of pneumococci on hands and fomites. Findings. The hands of 3 adult volunteers, a glass plate and plastic ball were inoculated with pneumococci suspended in two different media. Survival at specified time intervals was determined by swabbing and re-culture onto horse blood agar. Pneumococci inoculated onto hands of volunteers were recovered after 3 minutes at 4{\%} to 79{\%} of the initial inoculum. Recovery from one individual was consistently higher. By one hour, only a small number of pneumococci were recovered and this was dependent on the suspension medium used. At subsequent intervals and up to 3 hours after inoculation, < 10 colony forming units were recovered from hands. On a glass plate, pneumococcal numbers dropped an average 70{\%} in the two hours after inoculation. Subsequently, < 100 colony forming units were recovered up to 15 hours after inoculation. Conclusion. The poor survival of pneumococci on hands suggests that the high prevalence of pneumococcal hand contamination in some populations is related to frequent inoculation rather than long survival. It is plausible that hand contamination plays a (brief) role in transmission directly, and indirectly through contamination via fomites. Regular hand washing and timely cleansing or removal of contaminated fomites may aid control of pneumococcal transmission via these routes. � 2008 Smith-Vaughan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.",
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    author = "Heidi Smith-Vaughan and F Crichton and Jemima Beissbarth and Peter Morris and Amanda Leach",
    year = "2008",
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    Smith-Vaughan, H, Crichton, F, Beissbarth, J, Morris, P & Leach, A 2008, 'Survival of pneumococcus on hands and fomites', BMC Research Notes, vol. 1, pp. 112-115.

    Survival of pneumococcus on hands and fomites. / Smith-Vaughan, Heidi; Crichton, F; Beissbarth, Jemima; Morris, Peter; Leach, Amanda.

    In: BMC Research Notes, Vol. 1, 2008, p. 112-115.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Survival of pneumococcus on hands and fomites

    AU - Smith-Vaughan, Heidi

    AU - Crichton, F

    AU - Beissbarth, Jemima

    AU - Morris, Peter

    AU - Leach, Amanda

    PY - 2008

    Y1 - 2008

    N2 - Background. Pneumococcal hand contamination in Indigenous children in remote communities is common (37%). It is not clear whether this requires frequent inoculation, or if pneumococci will survive on hands for long periods of time. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the survival time of pneumococci on hands and fomites. Findings. The hands of 3 adult volunteers, a glass plate and plastic ball were inoculated with pneumococci suspended in two different media. Survival at specified time intervals was determined by swabbing and re-culture onto horse blood agar. Pneumococci inoculated onto hands of volunteers were recovered after 3 minutes at 4% to 79% of the initial inoculum. Recovery from one individual was consistently higher. By one hour, only a small number of pneumococci were recovered and this was dependent on the suspension medium used. At subsequent intervals and up to 3 hours after inoculation, < 10 colony forming units were recovered from hands. On a glass plate, pneumococcal numbers dropped an average 70% in the two hours after inoculation. Subsequently, < 100 colony forming units were recovered up to 15 hours after inoculation. Conclusion. The poor survival of pneumococci on hands suggests that the high prevalence of pneumococcal hand contamination in some populations is related to frequent inoculation rather than long survival. It is plausible that hand contamination plays a (brief) role in transmission directly, and indirectly through contamination via fomites. Regular hand washing and timely cleansing or removal of contaminated fomites may aid control of pneumococcal transmission via these routes. � 2008 Smith-Vaughan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

    AB - Background. Pneumococcal hand contamination in Indigenous children in remote communities is common (37%). It is not clear whether this requires frequent inoculation, or if pneumococci will survive on hands for long periods of time. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the survival time of pneumococci on hands and fomites. Findings. The hands of 3 adult volunteers, a glass plate and plastic ball were inoculated with pneumococci suspended in two different media. Survival at specified time intervals was determined by swabbing and re-culture onto horse blood agar. Pneumococci inoculated onto hands of volunteers were recovered after 3 minutes at 4% to 79% of the initial inoculum. Recovery from one individual was consistently higher. By one hour, only a small number of pneumococci were recovered and this was dependent on the suspension medium used. At subsequent intervals and up to 3 hours after inoculation, < 10 colony forming units were recovered from hands. On a glass plate, pneumococcal numbers dropped an average 70% in the two hours after inoculation. Subsequently, < 100 colony forming units were recovered up to 15 hours after inoculation. Conclusion. The poor survival of pneumococci on hands suggests that the high prevalence of pneumococcal hand contamination in some populations is related to frequent inoculation rather than long survival. It is plausible that hand contamination plays a (brief) role in transmission directly, and indirectly through contamination via fomites. Regular hand washing and timely cleansing or removal of contaminated fomites may aid control of pneumococcal transmission via these routes. � 2008 Smith-Vaughan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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    JO - BMC Research Notes

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    SN - 1756-0500

    ER -