Sustained antibody responses 6 years following 1, 2, or 3 doses of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in adolescent fijian girls, and subsequent responses to a single dose of bivalent HPV vaccine: A prospective cohort study

Zheng Quan Toh, Fiona M. Russell, Rita Reyburn, James Fong, Evelyn Tuivaga, Tupou Ratu, Cattram D. Nguyen, Rachel Devi, Mike Kama, Silivia Matanitobua, Sepehr N. Tabrizi, Suzanne M. Garland, Rohit Sinha, Ian Frazer, Lisi Tikoduadua, Joseph Kado, Eric Rafai, Edward Kim Mulholland, Paul V. Licciardi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    Background: The duration of antibody response following reduced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine doses has not been determined. We compared the antibody responses in girls previously vaccinated with zero, 1, 2, or 3 doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV; Gardasil, Merck) 6 years previously. 

    Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken in 200 Fijian girls 15-19 years of age. Approximately equal numbers of girls from 2 main ethnic groups (Fijians of Indian descent [FID] and Indigenous Fijians [iTaukei]) in Fiji were recruited for each dosage groups. Blood was drawn before and 28 days following a single dose of bivalent HPV vaccine (2vHPV; Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline). We measured neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 using the pseudovirion-based neutralization assay. 

    Results: After 6 years (before a dose of 2vHPV was given), the geometric mean NAb titers for all 4 HPV types were not statistically different between 2-dose (2D) and 3-dose (3D) recipients: HPV-6 (3D: 2216 [95% confidence interval {CI},1695-2896]; 2D: 1476 [95% CI, 1019-2137]; P = .07), HPV-11 (3D: 4431 [95% CI, 3396-5783]; 2D: 2951 [95% CI, 1984-4390]; P = .09), HPV-16 (3D: 3373 [95% CI, 2511-4530]; 2D: 3275 [95% CI, 2452-4373]; P = .89); HPV-18 (3D: 628 [95% CI: 445-888]; 2D: 606 [95% CI, 462-862]; P = .89), and were higher in FID than iTaukei girls. Although 1-dose recipients had significantly lower NAb titers than 2-/3-dose recipients, their NAb titers were 5- to 30-fold higher than unvaccinated girls. Post-2vHPV NAb titers against HPV-16 and -18 were not statistically different between girls who received 1, 2, or 3 doses of 4vHPV previously. 

    Conclusions: Two doses of 4vHPV provide similar NAb titers as 3 doses for 6 years, although the clinical significance is unknown. A single dose of 4vHPV elicits antibodies that persisted for at least 6 years, and induced immune memory, suggesting possible protection against HPV vaccine types after a single dose of 4vHPV.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)852-859
    Number of pages8
    JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
    Volume64
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2017

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