The genus Peronia Fleming, 1822 includes all the onchidiid slugs with dorsal gills. Its taxonomy is revised for the first time based on a large collection of fresh material from the entire Indo-West Pacific, from South Africa to Hawaii. Nine species are supported by mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (ITS2 and 28S) sequences as well as comparative anatomy. All types available were examined and the nomenclatural status of each existing name in the genus is addressed. Of 31 Peronia species-group names available, 27 are regarded as invalid (twenty-one synonyms, sixteen of which are new, five nomina dubia, and one homo-nym), and four as valid: Peronia peronii (Cuvier, 1804), Peronia verruculata (Cuvier, 1830), Peronia platei (Hoffmann, 1928), and Peronia madagascariensis (Labbé, 1934a). Five new species names are created: P. griffithsi Dayrat & Goulding, sp. nov., P. okinawensis Dayrat & Goulding, sp. nov., P. setoensis Dayrat & Goulding, sp. nov., P. sydneyensis Dayrat & Goulding, sp. nov., and P. willani Dayrat & Goulding, sp. nov. Peronia species are cryptic externally but can be distinguished using internal characters, with the exception of P. platei and P. setoensis. The anatomy of most species is described in detail here for the first time. All the secondary literature is commented on and historical specimens from museum collections were also examined to better establish species distributions. The genus Peronia includes two species that are widespread across the Indo-West Pacific (P. verruculata and P. peronii) as well as endemic species: P. ok-inawensis and P. setoensis are endemic to Japan, and P. willani is endemic to Northern Territory, Australia. Many new geographical records are provided, as well as a key to the species using morphological traits.