Taste perception in kidney disease and relationship to dietary sodium intake

Emma J. McMahon, Katrina L. Campbell, Judith D. Bauer

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Taste abnormalities are prevalent in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) potentially affecting food palatability and intake, and nutrition status. The TASTE CKD study aimed to assess taste and explore the relationship of dietary sodium intake with taste disturbance in CKD subjects. This was a cross-sectional study of 91 adult stage 3-5 CKD participants (78% male) aged 65.9 ± 13.5 years with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 33.1 ± 12.7 ml/min/1.73 m2, and 30 controls (47% male) aged 55.2 ± 7.4 years without kidney dysfunction. Taste assessment was performed in both groups, presenting five basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, umami and bitter) in blinded 2 ml solution which the participants tasted, identified (identification) and rated perceived strength (intensity) on a 10 cm visual analogue scale. Sodium intake was measured in the CKD group using validated food frequency questionnaire to determine high or low sodium intake (cut-off 100 mmol sodium/day). Differences between groups (CKD vs controls; high vs low sodium intake) were analysed using chi-square for identification and t-test for intensity. Multivariate analysis was used to adjust for age and gender differences between CKD and controls. The control group identified mean 3.9 ± 1.0 tastants correctly compared with 3.0 ± 1.2 for CKD group (p < 0.001), which remained significant after adjustment for age and gender. After adjustment for age and gender, sour identification and intensity and salty and umami intensity were impaired in CKD compared with controls. Participants with low sodium intake were more likely to correctly identify salty and umami, and rated intensity of umami and bitter significantly higher than those with high sodium intake. These findings add to the body of evidence suggesting that taste changes occur with CKD, independent of age and gender differences, with specific impairment in sour, umami and salty tastes. Our finding that sodium intake is related to umami and bitter disturbance as well as salty taste warrants further investigation.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)236-241
    Number of pages6
    JournalAppetite
    Volume83
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2014

    Fingerprint

    Taste Perception
    Dietary Sodium
    Kidney Diseases
    Chronic Renal Insufficiency
    Sodium
    Nutritional Status
    Visual Analog Scale
    Glomerular Filtration Rate
    Multivariate Analysis
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Eating

    Cite this

    McMahon, Emma J. ; Campbell, Katrina L. ; Bauer, Judith D. / Taste perception in kidney disease and relationship to dietary sodium intake. In: Appetite. 2014 ; Vol. 83. pp. 236-241.
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    abstract = "Taste abnormalities are prevalent in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) potentially affecting food palatability and intake, and nutrition status. The TASTE CKD study aimed to assess taste and explore the relationship of dietary sodium intake with taste disturbance in CKD subjects. This was a cross-sectional study of 91 adult stage 3-5 CKD participants (78{\%} male) aged 65.9 ± 13.5 years with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 33.1 ± 12.7 ml/min/1.73 m2, and 30 controls (47{\%} male) aged 55.2 ± 7.4 years without kidney dysfunction. Taste assessment was performed in both groups, presenting five basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, umami and bitter) in blinded 2 ml solution which the participants tasted, identified (identification) and rated perceived strength (intensity) on a 10 cm visual analogue scale. Sodium intake was measured in the CKD group using validated food frequency questionnaire to determine high or low sodium intake (cut-off 100 mmol sodium/day). Differences between groups (CKD vs controls; high vs low sodium intake) were analysed using chi-square for identification and t-test for intensity. Multivariate analysis was used to adjust for age and gender differences between CKD and controls. The control group identified mean 3.9 ± 1.0 tastants correctly compared with 3.0 ± 1.2 for CKD group (p < 0.001), which remained significant after adjustment for age and gender. After adjustment for age and gender, sour identification and intensity and salty and umami intensity were impaired in CKD compared with controls. Participants with low sodium intake were more likely to correctly identify salty and umami, and rated intensity of umami and bitter significantly higher than those with high sodium intake. These findings add to the body of evidence suggesting that taste changes occur with CKD, independent of age and gender differences, with specific impairment in sour, umami and salty tastes. Our finding that sodium intake is related to umami and bitter disturbance as well as salty taste warrants further investigation.",
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    Taste perception in kidney disease and relationship to dietary sodium intake. / McMahon, Emma J.; Campbell, Katrina L.; Bauer, Judith D.

    In: Appetite, Vol. 83, 01.12.2014, p. 236-241.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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