The 10 Australian ecosystems most vulnerable to tipping points

William Laurance, Bernard Dell, Stephen Turton, Michael Lawes, Lindsay Hutley, Hamish McCallum, Patricia Dale, Michael Bird, Giles Hardy, Gavin Prideaux, Ben Gawne, Clive McMahon, Richard Yu, Jean-Marc Hero, Lin Schwarzkopf, Andrew Krockenberger, Samantha Setterfield, Michael Douglas, Ewen Silvester, Mark MahonyKaren Vella, Udoy Saikia, Carl-Henrik Wahren, Zhihong Xu, Bradley Smith, Chris Cocklin

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    We identify the 10 major terrestrial and marine ecosystems in Australia most vulnerable to tipping points, in which modest environmental changes can cause disproportionately large changes in ecosystem properties. To accomplish this we independently surveyed the coauthors of this paper to produce a list of candidate ecosystems, and then refined this list during a 2-day workshop. The list includes (1) elevationally restricted mountain ecosystems, (2) tropical savannas, (3) coastal floodplains and wetlands, (4) coral reefs, (5) drier rainforests, (6) wetlands and floodplains in the Murray-Darling Basin, (7) the Mediterranean ecosystems of southwestern Australia, (8) offshore islands, (9) temperate eucalypt forests, and (10) salt marshes and mangroves. Some of these ecosystems are vulnerable to widespread phase-changes that could fundamentally alter ecosystem properties such as habitat structure, species composition, fire regimes, or carbon storage. Others appear susceptible to major changes across only part of their geographic range, whereas yet others are susceptible to a large-scale decline of key biotic components, such as small mammals or stream-dwelling amphibians. For each ecosystem we consider the intrinsic features and external drivers that render it susceptible to tipping points, and identify subtypes of the ecosystem that we deem to be especially vulnerable. � 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1472-1480
    Number of pages9
    JournalBiological Conservation
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 2011


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