The continuing role of Hemophilus influenzae type b carriage surveillance as a mechanism for early detection of invasive disease activity

Susan P. Jacups

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


    Prior to the introduction of Hemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under five years of age worldwide. In countries that have adopted Hib vaccination schedules, invasive disease has reduced markedly. Oro-naso pharyngeal carriage is recognized as the most significant source of infection. Hib carriage is significantly associated with poverty, such as overcrowding, poor ventilation in houses, lack of running water and high smoking rates. Additionally, many Indigenous minority groups report high rates of Hib carriage. A resurgence of Hib disease among Alaskan children in the 1990s, lead to a change in approach to eliminate Hib disease and carriage in high-risk populations. This new approach identifies strategies for eliminating Hib disease focusing on the reservoirs of colonization within families and communities. Monitoring Hib carriage continues to offer an early warning system, whereby intervention could prevent invasive disease resurgence.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1254-1260
    Number of pages7
    JournalHuman Vaccines
    Issue number12
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2011


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