Background: Bronchiectasis, a previously neglected condition, now has renewed research interest. There are a few systematic reviews that have reported on the economic and societal burden of bronchiectasis in adults, but none have reported on children. We undertook this systematic review to estimate the economic burden of bronchiectasis in children and adults. Research Question: What is the health care resource utilization and economic burden of bronchiectasis in adults and children? Study Design and Methods: We performed a systematic review identifying publications from Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane (trials, reviews, and editorials), and EconLit about the economic burden and health care utilization in adults and children with bronchiectasis between January 1, 2001, and October 10, 2022. We used a narrative synthesis approach and estimated aggregate costs for several countries. Results: We identified 53 publications reporting on the economic burden and/or health care utilization of people with bronchiectasis. Total annual health care costs per adult patient ranged from 2021 $3,579 to $82,545 USD and were predominantly driven by hospitalization costs. Annual indirect costs including lost income because of illness (reported in only five studies) ranged from $1,311 to $2,898 USD. Total health care costs in children with bronchiectasis were $23,687 USD annually in the one study that estimated them. Additionally, one publication found that children with bronchiectasis missed 12 school days per year. We estimated aggregate annual health care costs for nine countries, ranging from $101.6 million per year in Singapore to $14.68 billion per year in the United States. We also estimated the aggregate cost of bronchiectasis in Australian children to be $17.77 million per year. Interpretation: This review highlights the substantial economic burden of bronchiectasis for patients and health systems. To our knowledge, it is the first systematic review to include the costs for children with bronchiectasis and their families. Future research to examine the economic impact of bronchiectasis in children and economically disadvantaged communities, and to further understand the indirect burden of bronchiectasis on individuals and the community, is needed.