The effects of agronomic management practices on the soil microbial community were investigated in a maize production system in New South Wales, Australia. The site has been intensively studied to measure the impact of stubble management and N-fertilizer application on greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 and N2O), N-cycling, pathology, soil structure and yield. As all of these endpoints can be regulated by microbial processes, the microbiology of the system was examined. Soil samples were taken after a winter fallow period and the diversity of the bacterial and fungal communities was measured using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Stubble and N shifted the structure of bacterial and fungal communities with the primary driver being stubble addition on the fungal community structure (P<0.05 for all effects). Changes in C, N (total and NO3), K and Na, were correlated (P<0.05) with variation in the microbial community structure. Quantitative PCR showed that nifH (nitrogen fixation) and napA (denitrification) gene abundance increased upon stubble retention, whereas amoA gene numbers were increased by N addition. These results showed that the management of both stubble and N have significant and long-term impacts on the size and structure of the soil microbial community at phylogenetic and functional levels.