The fluid management of adults with severe malaria

Joshua Hanson, Nicholas Anstey, David Bihari, Nicholas J White, Nicholas Day, Arjen Dondorp

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    Abstract

    Fluid resuscitation has long been considered a key intervention in the treatment of adults with severe falciparum malaria. Profound hypovolemia is common in these patients and has the potential to exacerbate the acidosis and acute kidney injury that are independent predictors of death. However, new microvascular imaging techniques have shown that disease severity correlates more strongly with obstruction of the microcirculation by parasitized erythrocytes - a process termed sequestration. Fluid loading has little effect on sequestration and increases the risk of complications, particularly pulmonary edema, a condition that can develop suddenly and unpredictably and that is frequently fatal in this population. Accordingly, even if a patient is clinically hypovolemic, if there is an adequate blood pressure and urine output, there may be little advantage in infusing intravenous fluid beyond a maintenance rate of 1 to 2 mL/kg per hour. The optimal agent for fluid resuscitation remains uncertain; significant anemia requires blood transfusion, but colloid solutions may be associated with harm and should be avoided. The preferred crystalloid is unclear, although the use of balanced solutions requires investigation. There are fewer data to guide the fluid management of severe vivax and knowlesi malaria, although a similar conservative strategy would appear prudent.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-9
    Number of pages9
    JournalCritical Care
    Volume18
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014

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    Hanson, J., Anstey, N., Bihari, D., White, N. J., Day, N., & Dondorp, A. (2014). The fluid management of adults with severe malaria. Critical Care, 18, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-014-0642-6