Background: An increasing proportion of antibiotic-resistant infections are community acquired. However, the burden of community-associated infections (CAIs) and the resulting impact due to resistance have not been well described.
Methods: We conducted a multisite, retrospective case-cohort study of all acute care hospital admissions across 134 hospitals in Australia. Patients admitted with a positive culture of 1 of 5 organisms of interest, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecium, from January 1, 2012, through December 30, 2016, were included. Data linkage was used to link hospital admissions and pathology data. Patients with a bloodstream infection (BSI), urinary tract infection (UTI), or respiratory tract infection (RTI) were included in the analysis. We compared patients with a resistant and drug-sensitive infection and used regression analyses to derive the difference in length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality estimates associated with resistance.
Results: No statistically significant impact on hospital LOS for patients with resistant CAIs compared with drug-sensitive CAIs was identified. CAI patients with drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli, K. pneumoniae) BSIs were more likely to die in the hospital than those with drug-sensitive Enterobacteriaceae BSIs (odds ratio [OR], 3.28; 95% CI, 1.40-6.92). CAI patients with drug-resistant P. aeruginosa UTIs were more likely to die in the hospital than those with the drug-sensitive counterpart (OR,2.43; 95% CI, 1.12-4.85).
Conclusions: The burden of CAI in the hospital is significant, and antibiotic resistance is adding to associated mortality.