This paper focuses on pilot activities being carried out under the Integrated Coastal Watershed Management component of the Pacific International Waters Project (IWP). The paper discusses a two-pronged approach being taken to address the root causes of identified threats to the international waters of 14 Pacific Island countries. National and local level activities are focusing on coastal fisheries, waste management and freshwater protection. The integrated strategic approach of participatory planning processes, social analysis, resource economics and communications in identification of environment problems, their causes and potential solutions for supporting behavioural change in relation to resource use and management is discussed. Some examples of country activities to date are provided. Although it is too early to assess a full range of lessons and project impacts, a number of key issues continue to provide challenges for the implementation of a large regional programme such as the IWP. They include: multi-sectoral stakeholder engagement; the establishment of partnerships needed to support integrated coastal management; and national capacity to implement community-based resource management projects. © 2006.