The risk factors of head and neck cancer and their general patterns in Australia: A descriptive review and update

Jagtar Singh, Ramya Ramamoorthi, Siddartha Baxi, Rama Jayaraj, Mahiban Thomas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive review of risk factors of head and neck cancer (HNC), with particular interest in their general patterns in Australia. All these risk factors are deeply perplexing, with socioeconomic, cultural, and geographic variables. We reviewed articles from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar by using keywords such as risk factors, alcohol, tobacco, human papilloma virus (HPV), environmental risk factors, and other risk factors. We selected relevant articles after they completely ft into the inclusion criteria for this review. Previous reports highlight that smoking tobacco, consuming alcohol, and HPV infection are the major risk factors for HNC. Geographical variations in incidence rates are indicative of differences in the prevalence of risk factors among countries. HNC could be prevented by reducing the prevalence of established risk factors.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-57
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Volume33
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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