Clinically detectable thyroid nodules are less common in children than adults. However, they are associated with an increased risk of malignancy. Therefore, thorough evaluation of paediatric thyroid nodules is necessary, and an understanding of the features associated with a higher risk of malignancy is important to guide management and referral. Thyroid cancer in children differs significantly from that seen in adults in terms of genetics, presentation, response to treatment and prognosis. Children often present with more advanced disease, but the vast majority have excellent long-term prognosis. Evaluation and management of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer require a multidisciplinary team approach and involvement of specialists with experience in this field. This review summarises investigative pathways for thyroid nodules in children and outlines current management strategies for paediatric thyroid nodules and cancer.