Tipping back the balance

recolonization of the Macquarie Island isthmus by king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) following extermination for human gain

D N VAN, Clive McMahon, Iain Field

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when blubber oil fuelled house lamps, the king penguin population at Macquarie Island was reduced from two very large (perhaps hundreds of thousands of birds) colonies to about 3000 birds. One colony, located on the isthmus when the island was discovered in 1810, was extinct by 1894 and it took about 100 years for king penguins to re-establish a viable breeding population there. Here we document this recovery. The first eggs laid at Gadget Gully on the isthmus were recorded in late February 1995 but in subsequent years egg laying took place earlier between November and February (this temporal discontinuity is a consequence of king penguin breeding behaviour). The first chick was hatched in April 1995 but the first fledging was not raised until the following breeding season in October 1996. The colony increased on average 66% per annum in the five years between 1995 and 2000. King penguins appear resilient to catastrophic population reductions, and as the island's population increases, it is likely that other previously abandoned breeding sites will be reoccupied. � Antarctic Science Ltd 2009.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)237-241
    Number of pages5
    JournalAntarctic Science
    Volume21
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2009

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    recolonization
    egg
    bird
    blubber oil
    fledging
    reproductive behavior
    breeding site
    breeding population
    gully
    breeding season
    birds
    breeding
    discontinuity
    breeding sites
    population growth
    oviposition
    oil
    chicks
    Aptenodytes patagonicus

    Cite this

    @article{49c60961aae1451090f188a241a8e872,
    title = "Tipping back the balance: recolonization of the Macquarie Island isthmus by king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) following extermination for human gain",
    abstract = "During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when blubber oil fuelled house lamps, the king penguin population at Macquarie Island was reduced from two very large (perhaps hundreds of thousands of birds) colonies to about 3000 birds. One colony, located on the isthmus when the island was discovered in 1810, was extinct by 1894 and it took about 100 years for king penguins to re-establish a viable breeding population there. Here we document this recovery. The first eggs laid at Gadget Gully on the isthmus were recorded in late February 1995 but in subsequent years egg laying took place earlier between November and February (this temporal discontinuity is a consequence of king penguin breeding behaviour). The first chick was hatched in April 1995 but the first fledging was not raised until the following breeding season in October 1996. The colony increased on average 66{\%} per annum in the five years between 1995 and 2000. King penguins appear resilient to catastrophic population reductions, and as the island's population increases, it is likely that other previously abandoned breeding sites will be reoccupied. � Antarctic Science Ltd 2009.",
    keywords = "annual variation, bird, breeding population, catastrophic event, egg production, marine ecosystem, population dynamics, population size, recolonization, reproductive behavior, reproductive cycle, Australasia, Australia, Macquarie Island, Pacific islands, Pacific Ocean, Aptenodytes patagonicus, Aves, Spheniscidae",
    author = "VAN, {D N} and Clive McMahon and Iain Field",
    year = "2009",
    language = "English",
    volume = "21",
    pages = "237--241",
    journal = "Antarctic Science",
    issn = "0954-1020",
    publisher = "British Antarctic Survey",
    number = "3",

    }

    Tipping back the balance : recolonization of the Macquarie Island isthmus by king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) following extermination for human gain. / VAN, D N; McMahon, Clive; Field, Iain.

    In: Antarctic Science, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2009, p. 237-241.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Tipping back the balance

    T2 - recolonization of the Macquarie Island isthmus by king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) following extermination for human gain

    AU - VAN, D N

    AU - McMahon, Clive

    AU - Field, Iain

    PY - 2009

    Y1 - 2009

    N2 - During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when blubber oil fuelled house lamps, the king penguin population at Macquarie Island was reduced from two very large (perhaps hundreds of thousands of birds) colonies to about 3000 birds. One colony, located on the isthmus when the island was discovered in 1810, was extinct by 1894 and it took about 100 years for king penguins to re-establish a viable breeding population there. Here we document this recovery. The first eggs laid at Gadget Gully on the isthmus were recorded in late February 1995 but in subsequent years egg laying took place earlier between November and February (this temporal discontinuity is a consequence of king penguin breeding behaviour). The first chick was hatched in April 1995 but the first fledging was not raised until the following breeding season in October 1996. The colony increased on average 66% per annum in the five years between 1995 and 2000. King penguins appear resilient to catastrophic population reductions, and as the island's population increases, it is likely that other previously abandoned breeding sites will be reoccupied. � Antarctic Science Ltd 2009.

    AB - During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when blubber oil fuelled house lamps, the king penguin population at Macquarie Island was reduced from two very large (perhaps hundreds of thousands of birds) colonies to about 3000 birds. One colony, located on the isthmus when the island was discovered in 1810, was extinct by 1894 and it took about 100 years for king penguins to re-establish a viable breeding population there. Here we document this recovery. The first eggs laid at Gadget Gully on the isthmus were recorded in late February 1995 but in subsequent years egg laying took place earlier between November and February (this temporal discontinuity is a consequence of king penguin breeding behaviour). The first chick was hatched in April 1995 but the first fledging was not raised until the following breeding season in October 1996. The colony increased on average 66% per annum in the five years between 1995 and 2000. King penguins appear resilient to catastrophic population reductions, and as the island's population increases, it is likely that other previously abandoned breeding sites will be reoccupied. � Antarctic Science Ltd 2009.

    KW - annual variation

    KW - bird

    KW - breeding population

    KW - catastrophic event

    KW - egg production

    KW - marine ecosystem

    KW - population dynamics

    KW - population size

    KW - recolonization

    KW - reproductive behavior

    KW - reproductive cycle

    KW - Australasia

    KW - Australia

    KW - Macquarie Island

    KW - Pacific islands

    KW - Pacific Ocean

    KW - Aptenodytes patagonicus

    KW - Aves

    KW - Spheniscidae

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    JO - Antarctic Science

    JF - Antarctic Science

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