Severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus 2 has caused a global public health crisis with high rates of infection and mortality. Treatment and prevention approaches include vaccine development, the design of small-molecule antiviral drugs, and macromolecular neutralizing antibodies. Polymers have been designed for effective virus inhibition and as antiviral drug delivery carriers. This review summarizes recent progress and provides a perspective on polymer-based approaches for the treatment and prevention of coronavirus infection. These polymer-based partners include polyanion/polycations, dendritic polymers, macromolecular prodrugs, and polymeric drug delivery systems that have the potential to significantly improve the efficacy of antiviral therapeutics.