The traditional diets of Indigenous Peoples globally have undergone a major transition due to settler colonialism. This systematic review aims to provide a perspective of traditional food intake of Indigenous populations in high-income settler-colonized countries. For inclusion, studies reported the primary outcome of interest - traditional food contribution to total energy intake (% of energy) - and occurred in Canada, the United States (including Hawaii and Alaska), New Zealand, Australia, and/or Scandinavian countries. Primary outcome data were reported and organized by date of data collection by country. Forty-nine articles published between 1987 and 2019 were identified. Wide variation in contribution of traditional food to energy was reported. A trend for decreasing traditional food energy intake over time was apparent; however, heterogeneity in study populations and dietary assessment methods limited conclusive evaluation of this. This review may inform cross-sectoral policy to protect the sustainable utilization of traditional food for Indigenous Peoples.