Translation and psychometric evaluation of the Chinese Adjustment Disorder–New Module 20

Louisa Lorenz, Grace W.K. Ho, Athena C.Y. Chan, Daniel T. Bressington, Wai Tong Chien, Mark Shevlin, Philip Hyland, Andreas Maercker, Thanos Karatzias

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Adjustment Disorder–New Module 20 (ADNM-20) was developed for the assessment of adjustment disorder symptoms. The aim of the present study was to translate and conduct psychometric testing of the Chinese version of the ADNM-20. The English version was translated into traditional Chinese in an iterative process with an expert panel of mental health professionals. A total of 433 university students in Hong Kong between ages 18–24 years completed the Chinese ADNM-20 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale via an online survey; 32 were retested after two weeks. The content validity indices were excellent for most of the items. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a unidimensional first-order structure with excellent composite reliability. The test–retest reliability of the Chinese version was below satisfactory for the individual items; the intra-class correlation for the overall scale was moderate. The Chinese version of the ADNM-20 also indicated a moderate positive correlation with anxiety and depression symptoms. Initial results support the content, factorial, and discriminant validity of the translated scale. More research is needed to assess its reliability in this cultural context. The ADNM-20 can be quickly employed for the assessment of adjustment disorder as proposed for ICD-11.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)170-185
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Mental Health
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2020
Externally publishedYes


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