Trends and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in Indonesia: A multivariate decomposition analysis

Siti Nurokhmah, Lucinda Middleton, Judhiastuty Februhartanty, Aryono Hendarto

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Abstract

Background Early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) is key to reducing neonatal morbidity and mortality, however, little is known about the determinants of the trends of EIBF prevalence in Indonesia. This study aims to assess the contributing factors to the changes in the prevalence of EIBF between 2007 and 2017. 

Methods We analysed data from the 2007, 2012, and 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys to estimate the trends in EIBF. A multivariate logistic decomposition model was fitted to examine variables associated with changes in the percentage of EIBF from 2007 to 2017. The contributing factors to changes in EIBF prevalence were categorized into either compositional or behavioural changes, with each of them divided into portions or percentages of contribution (pct) of the independent variables. The former refers to the changes in the distribution of samples, while the latter refers to the changes in the behavioural responses toward EIBF in both surveys. All analyses accounted for the complex study design and potential confounding factors. 

Results An increase in the prevalence of EIBF from 49.9% to 56.5% was recorded between 2012 and 2017, with an overall increase of 16.9 percentage points from 2007 to 2017. At the aggregate level, the compositional differences did not significantly contribute to the changes in the percentage of EIBF, while 98.3pct (p < 0.001) was associated with changes in mothers’ behavioural response towards EIBF. The composition changes in the geographical region of Sumatra, and caesarean delivery negatively contributed to the changes in EIBF prevalence with -0.6pct and -14.2pct, respectively. However, the compositional differences in those living in Kalimantan & Sulawesi, first-time mothers, and small-born infants positively contributed to the change. Behaviour changes in mothers with higher education (8.8pct), from higher income households (-17.5pct), and those residing in Sumatra (-8.2pct) and Kali-mantan & Sulawesi (-10.2pct) significantly contributed to the upward trend in EIBF prevalence. 

Conclusions Almost half of the newborns experienced delayed breastfeeding initiation despite the improvement in the prevalence of EIBF. Therefore, further research and interventions on behaviour change in mother’s attitudes towards EIBF, especially among those undergoing caesarean delivery, living in Kalimantan or Sulawesi, and from wealthier households, are recommended to close this gap.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0294900
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalPLoS One
Volume18
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

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