Aims: To determine among First Nations and Europid pregnant women the cumulative incidence and predictors of postpartum type 2 diabetes and prediabetes and describe postpartum cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles.
Methods: PANDORA is a prospective longitudinal cohort of women recruited in pregnancy. Ethnic-specific rates of postpartum type 2 diabetes and prediabetes were reported for women with diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), gestational diabetes (GDM) or normoglycaemia in pregnancy over a short follow-up of 2.5 years (n = 325). Pregnancy characteristics and CVD risk profiles according to glycaemic status, and factors associated with postpartum diabetes/prediabetes were examined in First Nations women.
Results: The cumulative incidence of postpartum type 2 diabetes among women with DIP or GDM were higher for First Nations women (48%, 13/27, women with DIP, 13%, 11/82, GDM), compared to Europid women (nil DIP or GDM p < 0.001). Characteristics associated with type 2 diabetes/prediabetes among First Nations women with GDM/DIP included, older age, multiparity, family history of diabetes, higher glucose values, insulin use and body mass index (BMI).
Conclusions: First Nations women experience a high incidence of postpartum type 2 diabetes after GDM/DIP, highlighting the need for culturally responsive policies at an individual and systems level, to prevent diabetes and its complications.