Promotion of regular physical activity during childhood within schools, home and community settings is important as childhood forms the foundation for physical activity habits that can track into adulthood. Despite childhood being a crucial period for developing physical activity behaviour, there is a limited understanding of the physical activity behaviours of school-aged children. The aim of this research report is to facilitate understanding of children’s physical activity behaviours by outlining a range of measurement methods, behaviour models and correlates of children’s physical activity. The home, community and school settings in which children engage in physical activity are also discussed. Outlining the importance, dimensions and settings of children’s physical activity is vital to increase understanding and awareness of children’s physical activity behaviour. Physical activity researchers and professionals can use the findings from this report in order to consider approaches to prevent the occurrence of diseases associated with physical inactivity.