Validity and reliability of safety behaviors questionnaire for Persian adults who stutter: A cultural perspective

Maryam Azarinfar, Hamid Karimi, Fariba Jowkar, Bijan Shafiei

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Introduction: Adults who stutter (AWS) are reported to have higher social anxiety compared to those who do not stutter. Previous studies have suggested that safety behaviors, which are cognitive or behavioral strategies used by people with anxiety to prevent negative consequences, are important factors in maintaining anxiety. However, the frequency and types of such behaviors might vary in different cultures. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a transcultural adaptation of Safety Behaviors Questionnaire (Helgadottir et al., 2014) for Persian-speaking AWS and assess its validity and reliability. Methods: In the first step, the original English questionnaire was translated into Persian using the International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) method. Then, 17 speech and language pathologists (SLPs) and 5 AWS evaluated all questionnaire items using Likert scales to determine face validity. Finally, 167 Persian-speaking AWS completed the questionnaire to assess its construct validity and reliability. Their responses were analyzed using factor analysis and Cronbach's Alpha. Results: Some items of the original questionnaire were modified or combined with other similar items after assessing the face validity of the Persian-translated questionnaire. Construct validity analysis categorized the remaining 29 questionnaire items into four factors: general avoidance, practice and control, rehearsal, and choosing safe and easy people. The high Cronbach's Alpha of 0.89 for all items confirmed the internal reliability of the Persian-translated questionnaire. Discussion/Conclusions: The results confirmed the psychometric characteristics of the Persian- translated version of the Safety Behaviors Questionnaire (Helgadottir et al., 2014); therefore, speech pathologists can apply it in future clinical and research settings. Similar to Australian AWS, Persian participants of this study self-reported use of various types of safety behaviors frequently.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number106251
    Pages (from-to)1-13
    Number of pages13
    JournalJournal of Communication Disorders
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2022

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    Isfahan University of Medical Sciences financially supported this research. This financial support was used to cover the cost of translation and assessment of the face and construct validity.


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