Self-management plays a vital role in diabetes management for adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). While there are many people with T2DM in Vietnam, clinical understanding of diabetes self-management (DSM) in this context is limited due to the lack of a valid measurement instrument. Translation and back-translation processes were used to translate the Diabetes Self-Management Instrument (DSMI) into Vietnamese. Then, translation equivalence, face validity, construct validity, and internal consistency were assessed in a sample of 198 Vietnamese adults with T2DM. The Cronbach's alpha of the V-DSMI was.92, with a number of significant inter-item correlations. The Vietnamese version of the Diabetes Self-Management Instrument (V-DSMI) retained the meaning of the original English version, and the language of the V-DSMI was clearly understandable to adults with T2DM in Vietnam. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the goodness of fit between the data and the previously identified factor structure. These results indicated that the V-DSMI is acceptable for use with Vietnamese adults with T2DM in further practice and research. However, future studies would be beneficial to determine the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the V-DSMI.