Vision Transformers, Ensemble Model, and Transfer Learning Leveraging Explainable AI for Brain Tumor Detection and Classification

Shahriar Hossain, Amitabha Chakrabarty, Thippa Reddy Gadekallu, Mamoun Alazab, Md Jalil Piran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The abnormal growth of malignant or nonmalignant tissues in the brain causes long-term damage to the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most common methods of detecting brain tumors. To determine whether a patient has a brain tumor, MRI filters are physically examined by experts after they are received. It is possible for MRI images examined by different specialists to produce inconsistent results since professionals formulate evaluations differently. Furthermore, merely identifying a tumor is not enough. To begin treatment as soon as possible, it is equally important to determine the type of tumor the patient has. In this paper, we consider the multiclass classification of brain tumors since significant work has been done on binary classification. In order to detect tumors faster, more unbiased, and reliably, we investigated the performance of several deep learning (DL) architectures including Visual Geometry Group 16 (VGG16), InceptionV3, VGG19, ResNet50, InceptionResNetV2, and Xception. Following this, we propose a transfer learning(TL) based multiclass classification model called IVX16 based on the three best-performing TL models. We use a dataset consisting of a total of 3264 images. Through extensive experiments, we achieve peak accuracy of 95.11% , 93.88% , 94.19% , 93.88% , 93.58% , 94.5% , and 96.94% for VGG16, InceptionV3, VGG19, ResNet50, InceptionResNetV2, Xception, and IVX16, respectively. Furthermore, we use Explainable AI to evaluate the performance and validity of each DL model and implement recently introduced Vison Transformer (ViT) models and compare their obtained output with the TL and ensemble model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 12 Apr 2023


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