AbstractThe aim of this thesis is to contribute to better policy and practice of social and cultural
impact assessment. The overarching research question is: ‘What model of social and cultural
impact assessment will deliver socially, culturally, ecologically and economically sustainable
development of North Australia, including the ability of Aboriginal people to determine the
type, pace and scale of development on their land and seas?’.
A multi-methods research approach includes an audit of impact assessment studies in the
Northern Territory (NT) between 1974 and 2018 and 58 key informant interviews with
practitioners, regulators, companies, decision-makers and Aboriginal leaders. Given the
multidisciplinary nature of impact assessment, the research draws on theoretical frameworks
from sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics, political science and human
The thesis starts with a gap analysis of the social, cultural and participative elements of
impact assessment in the NT between 1974 and 2018. It explores the dimensions of quality
impact assessment, perceived gaps between the ideal and actual practice and links between
a quality system and practitioners’ qualifications. It then explores key elements of a model
that suits the unique context of North Australia. These elements are values mapping,
participative justice and cultural competence.
Finally, the thesis outlines the forces driving and inhibiting institutionalisation of the model.
Barriers include a cultural capture of impact assessment by technical scientific approaches
and narrow conceptions of sustainability. The thesis concludes that impact assessment fails
to meet societal, proponent or practitioners’ expectations. It is seen as costly, inefficient,
culturally incompetent and as excluding the values and perspectives of those most affected
by development. Social impact assessment suffers from poorly qualified practitioners, a lowly
status and lack of agreed methodologies. The consequences are to divorce humans from the
socio-ecological ecosystems on which they depend, and which they continue to degrade, and
a failure to address a growing trust deficit in regulatory, political and business institutions.
|Date of Award||2021|
|Supervisor||Rolf Gerritsen (Supervisor) & Natasha Stacey (Supervisor)|